Reference List


These are the sources for the information found in the Question and Answer section. By exploring these sources, you can find the scientific studies and articles that further explain the information and services we provide.

Important books and documents:

Clinical follow-up compared with self-assessment of outcome after medical abortion: a multicentre, non-inferiority, randomised, controlled trial. Oppegaard KS1, Qvigstad E2, Fiala C3, Heikinheimo O4, Benson L5, Gemzell-Danielsson K6. Lancet. 2015 Feb 21;385(9969):698-704

John Riddle. Contraception and Abortion from the ancient world to the renaissance. Harvard University Press 1994.

Gilda Sedgh et al. Induced abortion: incidence and trends worldwide from 1995 to 2008. The lancet Volume 379, Issue 9816, 18–24 February 2012. Pages 625–632.

World Health Organization. Safe abortion: technical and policy guidance for health systems (2012). Second edition.

Preventable maternal mortality and morbidity and human rights. Human Rights Council Eleventh Session Resolution 11/8

United Nations Right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. A/66/254

World abortion laws

Ethical issues in obstetrics and gynecology by the FIGO Committee for the Study of Ethical Aspects of Human Reproduction and Women’s Health. October 2012

von Hertzen H et al. Efficacy of two intervals and two routes of administration of misoprostol for termination of early pregnancy: a randomised controlled equivalence trial. The Lancet. 2007 Jun 9;369(9577):1938-46.

Kulier R. Medical methods for first trimester abortion. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Nov 9;(11):CD002855.

Nanda K et al. Expectant care versus surgical treatment for miscarriage. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Mar 14;3:CD003518

Gomperts RJ et al. Using telemedicine for termination of pregnancy with mifepristone and misoprostol in settings where there is no access to safe services. BJOG. 2008 Aug;115(9):1171-5; discussion 1175-8.

Gomperts R et al. Regional differences in surgical intervention following medical termination of pregnancy provided by telemedicine. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2012 Feb;91(2):226-31.

Gomperts R et al. Provision of medical abortion using telemedicine in Brazil. Contraception. 2013 Nov 12.

Wildschut H et al. Medical methods for mid-trimester termination of pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Jan 19;(1):CD005216.

The General Comment of the Committee on Economic Social and Cultural Rights on the right to the highest attainable standard of health in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights at paragraph 42 states: “While only States are parties to the Covenant and thus ultimately accountable for compliance with it, all members of society - individuals, including health professionals, families, local communities, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, civil society organizations, as well as the private business sector - have responsibilities regarding the realization of the right to health. State parties should therefore provide an environment which facilitates the discharge of these responsibilities.



Reference List Q and A


1. Grossman,|Daniel, Charlotte Ellertson, David A. Grimes and Dilys Walker. (2004) Routine Follow-up Visits After First-Trimester Induced Abortion. .Obstetrics and Gynecology (103)4:738-745

2. Ellertson, Charlotte, Batya Elul, Shuha Ambardekar, Lindy Wood, Julie Carroll and Kurus Coyaji. (2000) Accuracy of assessment of pregnancy duration by women seeking early abortions. Lancet 355: 877-881.

3. Taylor, Diana, Ann C. Hwang and Felicia H. Stewart. (2004) Care for Women Choosing Medication Abortion. The Nurse Practitioner 29(10):65-70.

4. International Consortium for Medical Abortion. (2004) Medical Abortion: Expanding Access to Safe Abortion and Saving Women's Lives. Statement from: Medical Abortion: An International Forum on Policies, Programmes and Services, 17-20 October 2004, Johannesburg, South Africa. Medical Abortion Consortium (Retrieved July 26, 2005)

5. Elul, Batya, Selma Hajri, Nguyen thi Nhu Ngoc, Charlotte Ellertson, Claude Ben Slama, Elizabeth Pearlman and Beverly Winikoff. (2001) Can women in less-developed countries use a simplified medical abortion regimen? Lancet 357:1402-05.

6. The Population Council. (1998) Medical Methods of Early Abortion in Developing Countries: Consensus Statement. Contraception 58:257-59.

7. Harper, Cynthia, Charlotte Ellertson and Beverly Winikoff. (2002) Could American women use mifepristone-misoprostol pills safely with less medical supervision? Contraception 65:133-142.

8. Ashok, P.W., A. Templeton, P.T. Wagaarachchi and G.M.M. Flett. (2004) Midtrimester medical termination of pregnancy: a review of 1002 consecutive cases. Contraception 69:51-8.

9. Grimes, David A. (2005) Risks of Mifepristone Abortion in Context. Contraception 71.

10. E.C.H. Sorensen et al. (2005) Failed Medical Termination of Twin Pregnancy with Mifepristone: A Case Report. Contraception 71:231-233.

11. Wiebe, Ellen, Edith Guilbert, Francis Jacot, Caitlin Shannon and Beverly Winikoff. (2004) A Fatal Case of Clostridium sordellii Septic Shock Syndrome Associated With Medical Abortion. Obstetrics and Gynecology 104(5):1142-44.

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20. Hamoda, Haitham, Premila W. Ashok, Gillian M.M. Flett, and Allan Templeton. (2005) Medical abortion at 9-13 weeks gestation: a review of 1076 consecutive cases. Contraception 71: 327-332.

21. Ashok, Premila W., Avril Kidd, Gillian M.M. Flett, Ann Fitzmaurice, Wendy Graham and Allan Templeton. (2002) A randomized comparison of medical abortion and surgical vacuum aspiration at 10-13 weeks gestation. Human Reproduction (17)1: 92-98.

22. Ashok, Premila W., Allan Templeton, Prabhath T. Wagaarachchi, and Gillian M.M. Flett. (2002) Factors affecting the outcome of early medical abortion: a review of 4132 consecutive cases. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 109: 1281-1289.

23. Chen, Aimin, Wei Yuan, Olav Meirik, Xianmi Wang, Shi-Zong Wu, Lifeng Zhou, Lin Lou, Ersheng Gao and Yimin Cheng. (2004) Mifepristone-induced Early Abortion and Outcome of Subsequent Wanted Pregnancy. American Journal of Epidemiology (160)2: 110-117.

24. Coyaji, Kurus, Batya Elul, Usha Krishna, Suhas Otiv, Shubha Ambardekar, Arti Bopardikar, Veena Raote, Charlotte Ellertson and Beverly Winikoff. (2001) Mifepristone abortion outside the urban research hospital setting in India. Lancet 357: 120-21.

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27. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (1999) The Rh Factor: How It Can Affect Your Pregnancy. Medem Network: Medical Library.

28. Schaff, E.A., S.L. Fielding, S.H. Eisinger et al. (2000) Low-dose mifepristone followed by vaginal misoprostol at 48 hours for abortion up to 63 days. Contraception 61:41-46.

29. Rossi, Brooke, Mitchell D. Creinin and Leslie A. Meyn. (2004) Ability of the clinician and patient to predict the outcome of mifepristone and misoprostol medical abortion. Contraception 70:313-17.

30. Grimes, David A. and Mitchell D. Creinin. (2004) Induced Abortion: An Overview for Internists. Annals of Internal Medicine 140(8):620-27.

31. Rayas, Luca, Diane Catotti and Ana Corts. (2004) Achieving ICPD commitments for abortion care in Latin America: The unfinished agenda. Ipas: Chapel Hill, NC. IPAS

32. Allan Guttmacher Institute. (1999) Sharing Responsibility: Women, Society and Abortion Worldwide. Alllan Guttmacher Institute

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34. Shannon, C., L. P. Brothers, N. Philip and B. Winikoff. (2004) Ectopic Pregnancy and Medical Abortion. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 104(1):161-167.

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36. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005) Clostridium sordellii Toxic Shock Syndrome After Medical Abortion with Mifepristone and Intravaginal Misoprostol United States and Canada, 2001 2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 54(29):724.

37. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2005) FDA Public Health Advisory: Sepsis and Medical Abortion. FDA Retrieved August 5, 2005.

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40. Creinin, Mitchel D, Eliane Shore, Shyamala Balasubramanian and Bryna Harwood. (2005) The true cost differential between mifepristone and misoprostol and misoprostol-alone regimens for medical abortion.
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