Reference List

 

These are the sources for the information found in the Question and Answer section. By exploring these sources, you can find the scientific studies and articles that further explain the information and services we provide.

Important books and documents:

Clinical follow-up compared with self-assessment of outcome after medical abortion: a multicentre, non-inferiority, randomised, controlled trial. Oppegaard KS1, Qvigstad E2, Fiala C3, Heikinheimo O4, Benson L5, Gemzell-Danielsson K6. Lancet. 2015 Feb 21;385(9969):698-704

John Riddle. Contraception and Abortion from the ancient world to the renaissance. Harvard University Press 1994.

Gilda Sedgh et al. Induced abortion: incidence and trends worldwide from 1995 to 2008. The lancet Volume 379, Issue 9816, 18–24 February 2012. Pages 625–632.

World Health Organization. Safe abortion: technical and policy guidance for health systems (2012). Second edition.

Preventable maternal mortality and morbidity and human rights. Human Rights Council Eleventh Session Resolution 11/8

United Nations Right of everyone to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. A/66/254

World abortion laws

Ethical issues in obstetrics and gynecology by the FIGO Committee for the Study of Ethical Aspects of Human Reproduction and Women’s Health. October 2012

von Hertzen H et al. Efficacy of two intervals and two routes of administration of misoprostol for termination of early pregnancy: a randomised controlled equivalence trial. The Lancet. 2007 Jun 9;369(9577):1938-46.

Kulier R. Medical methods for first trimester abortion. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Nov 9;(11):CD002855.

Nanda K et al. Expectant care versus surgical treatment for miscarriage. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012 Mar 14;3:CD003518

Gomperts RJ et al. Using telemedicine for termination of pregnancy with mifepristone and misoprostol in settings where there is no access to safe services. BJOG. 2008 Aug;115(9):1171-5; discussion 1175-8.

Gomperts R et al. Regional differences in surgical intervention following medical termination of pregnancy provided by telemedicine. Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand. 2012 Feb;91(2):226-31.

Gomperts R et al. Provision of medical abortion using telemedicine in Brazil. Contraception. 2013 Nov 12.

Wildschut H et al. Medical methods for mid-trimester termination of pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011 Jan 19;(1):CD005216.

The General Comment of the Committee on Economic Social and Cultural Rights on the right to the highest attainable standard of health in the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights at paragraph 42 states: “While only States are parties to the Covenant and thus ultimately accountable for compliance with it, all members of society - individuals, including health professionals, families, local communities, intergovernmental and non-governmental organizations, civil society organizations, as well as the private business sector - have responsibilities regarding the realization of the right to health. State parties should therefore provide an environment which facilitates the discharge of these responsibilities.


 

 

Reference List Q and A

 

1. Grossman,|Daniel, Charlotte Ellertson, David A. Grimes and Dilys Walker. (2004) Routine Follow-up Visits After First-Trimester Induced Abortion. .Obstetrics and Gynecology (103)4:738-745

2. Ellertson, Charlotte, Batya Elul, Shuha Ambardekar, Lindy Wood, Julie Carroll and Kurus Coyaji. (2000) Accuracy of assessment of pregnancy duration by women seeking early abortions. Lancet 355: 877-881.

3. Taylor, Diana, Ann C. Hwang and Felicia H. Stewart. (2004) Care for Women Choosing Medication Abortion. The Nurse Practitioner 29(10):65-70.

4. International Consortium for Medical Abortion. (2004) Medical Abortion: Expanding Access to Safe Abortion and Saving Women's Lives. Statement from: Medical Abortion: An International Forum on Policies, Programmes and Services, 17-20 October 2004, Johannesburg, South Africa. Medical Abortion Consortium (Retrieved July 26, 2005)

5. Elul, Batya, Selma Hajri, Nguyen thi Nhu Ngoc, Charlotte Ellertson, Claude Ben Slama, Elizabeth Pearlman and Beverly Winikoff. (2001) Can women in less-developed countries use a simplified medical abortion regimen? Lancet 357:1402-05.

6. The Population Council. (1998) Medical Methods of Early Abortion in Developing Countries: Consensus Statement. Contraception 58:257-59.

7. Harper, Cynthia, Charlotte Ellertson and Beverly Winikoff. (2002) Could American women use mifepristone-misoprostol pills safely with less medical supervision? Contraception 65:133-142.

8. Ashok, P.W., A. Templeton, P.T. Wagaarachchi and G.M.M. Flett. (2004) Midtrimester medical termination of pregnancy: a review of 1002 consecutive cases. Contraception 69:51-8.

9. Grimes, David A. (2005) Risks of Mifepristone Abortion in Context. Contraception 71.

10. E.C.H. Sorensen et al. (2005) Failed Medical Termination of Twin Pregnancy with Mifepristone: A Case Report. Contraception 71:231-233.

11. Wiebe, Ellen, Edith Guilbert, Francis Jacot, Caitlin Shannon and Beverly Winikoff. (2004) A Fatal Case of Clostridium sordellii Septic Shock Syndrome Associated With Medical Abortion. Obstetrics and Gynecology 104(5):1142-44.

12. Monday, July 18, 2005 7:38:39 PM ET, Abortion pill maker alerts doctors to five deaths. Reuters, Washington. Retrieved July 19, 2005.

13. Basu, Ranjan, Tina Gundlach, and Margaret Tasker. (2003) Mifepristone and misoprostol for medical termination of pregnancy: the effectiveness of a flexible regimen. Journal of Family Planning and Reproductive Health Care 29(3):139-41.

14. Stubblefield, Phillip G., Sacheen Carr-Ellis, and Lynn Borgatta. (2004) Methods for Induced Abortion. Obstetrics and Gynecology 104(1): 174-185.

15. Hausknecht, R. (2003) Mifepristone and misoprostol for early medical abortion: 18 months experience in the United States. Contraception 61:463-65.

16. Allen, Rebecca H., Carolyn Westhoff, Lara De Nonno, Stephen L. Fielding, and Eric A. Schaff. (2001) Curettage After Mifepristone-Induced Abortion: Frequency, Timing, and Indications. Obstetrics and Gynecology 98(1): 101-6.

17. Hamoda, Haitham, Premila W. Ashok, Gillian M. M. Flett and Allan Templeton. (2003) Medical abortion at 64 to 91 days of gestation: A review of 483 consecutive cases. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 188(5): 1315-19.

18. Mitka, Mike. (2000) Some Men Who Take Viagra Die ? Why? Journal of the American Medical Association (283)5: 590-593.

19. Monday, July 19, 2005, 2 More Women Die After Abortion Pills, Gardiner Harris. New York Times Retrieved July 20, 2005.

20. Hamoda, Haitham, Premila W. Ashok, Gillian M.M. Flett, and Allan Templeton. (2005) Medical abortion at 9-13 weeks gestation: a review of 1076 consecutive cases. Contraception 71: 327-332.

21. Ashok, Premila W., Avril Kidd, Gillian M.M. Flett, Ann Fitzmaurice, Wendy Graham and Allan Templeton. (2002) A randomized comparison of medical abortion and surgical vacuum aspiration at 10-13 weeks gestation. Human Reproduction (17)1: 92-98.

22. Ashok, Premila W., Allan Templeton, Prabhath T. Wagaarachchi, and Gillian M.M. Flett. (2002) Factors affecting the outcome of early medical abortion: a review of 4132 consecutive cases. British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology 109: 1281-1289.

23. Chen, Aimin, Wei Yuan, Olav Meirik, Xianmi Wang, Shi-Zong Wu, Lifeng Zhou, Lin Lou, Ersheng Gao and Yimin Cheng. (2004) Mifepristone-induced Early Abortion and Outcome of Subsequent Wanted Pregnancy. American Journal of Epidemiology (160)2: 110-117.

24. Coyaji, Kurus, Batya Elul, Usha Krishna, Suhas Otiv, Shubha Ambardekar, Arti Bopardikar, Veena Raote, Charlotte Ellertson and Beverly Winikoff. (2001) Mifepristone abortion outside the urban research hospital setting in India. Lancet 357: 120-21.

25. MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia, Ectopic pregnancy

26. Kruse, Beth, Suzanne Poppema, Mitchell D. Creinin and Maureen Paul. (2000) Management of side effects and complications in medical abortion. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 183(2):S65-S75.

27. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. (1999) The Rh Factor: How It Can Affect Your Pregnancy. Medem Network: Medical Library.

28. Schaff, E.A., S.L. Fielding, S.H. Eisinger et al. (2000) Low-dose mifepristone followed by vaginal misoprostol at 48 hours for abortion up to 63 days. Contraception 61:41-46.

29. Rossi, Brooke, Mitchell D. Creinin and Leslie A. Meyn. (2004) Ability of the clinician and patient to predict the outcome of mifepristone and misoprostol medical abortion. Contraception 70:313-17.

30. Grimes, David A. and Mitchell D. Creinin. (2004) Induced Abortion: An Overview for Internists. Annals of Internal Medicine 140(8):620-27.

31. Rayas, Luca, Diane Catotti and Ana Corts. (2004) Achieving ICPD commitments for abortion care in Latin America: The unfinished agenda. Ipas: Chapel Hill, NC. IPAS

32. Allan Guttmacher Institute. (1999) Sharing Responsibility: Women, Society and Abortion Worldwide. Alllan Guttmacher Institute

33. Shannon, C., L. Perry Brothers, Neena M. Philip, and Beverly Winikoff. (2004) Infection after medical ab
ortion: a review of the literature. Contraception 70:183-190.

34. Shannon, C., L. P. Brothers, N. Philip and B. Winikoff. (2004) Ectopic Pregnancy and Medical Abortion. Obstetrics and Gynecology. 104(1):161-167.

35. Saraiya M, Green CA, Berg CJ, Hopkins FW, Koonin LM, Atrash HK. (1999) Spontaneous abortion-related deaths among women in the United States ? 1981-1991. Obstetrics and Gynecology 94(2):172-6.

36. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005) Clostridium sordellii Toxic Shock Syndrome After Medical Abortion with Mifepristone and Intravaginal Misoprostol United States and Canada, 2001 2005. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 54(29):724.

37. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2005) FDA Public Health Advisory: Sepsis and Medical Abortion. FDA Retrieved August 5, 2005.

38. Berg, Cynthia J., Jeani Chang, William M. Callaghan, and Sara J. Whitehead. (2003) Pregnancy-Related Mortality in the United States, 1991 1997. Obstetrics and Gynecology 101(2):289-296.

39. McGregor JA, Soper DE, Lovell G, Todd JK. (1989) Maternal deaths associated with Clostridium sordellii infection. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology 161(4):987-95.

40. Creinin, Mitchel D, Eliane Shore, Shyamala Balasubramanian and Bryna Harwood. (2005) The true cost differential between mifepristone and misoprostol and misoprostol-alone regimens for medical abortion.
Contraception 71:26-30.

41. World Health Organization. WHO Mortality Database.

42. Creinin MD, Aubeny E. (1999) Medical Abortion in early pregnancy. In: A Clinician's Guide to Medical and Surgical Abortion, Paul M, Lichtenberg ES, Borgatta L, Grimes DA and Stubblefield PG, eds. Churchill Livingstone: New York.

43. World Health Organization. (2005) The World Health Report 2005 Make Every Mother and Child Count. The World Health Organization: Geneva.WHO

44. Daulaire, Nils, Pat Leidl, Laurel Mackin, Colleen Murphy, and Laura Stark. (2002) Promises to Keep: The Toll of Unintended Pregnancies on Women?s Lives in the Developing World. Global Health Council: Washington, D.C.

45. Rozenberg P, Chevret S, Camus E, Tayrac R, Garbin O, Poncheville L, Coiffic J, Lucot JP, Le Gouell F, Tardif D, Allouche C, Fernandez H, and GROG. (2003) Medical treatment of ectopic pregnancies: a randomized clinical trial comparing methotrexate-mifepristone and methotreate-placebo. Human Reproduction 18(9):1802-08.

46. Gray, Richard. Doctors let 50 women abort babies at home. Scotland on Sunday. July 3, 2005:10

47. Gideon Koren, Lavinia Schuler. Taking drugs during pregnancy. How safe is unsafe? Canadian Family Physician. Vol 47: Mai 2001

48. G Blanch, Squenbyh, ES Ballantyne, CM Gosden, JP Neilson, K Holland, Embryonic abnormalities at medical termination of pregnancy with Mifepristone and Misoprostol during first trimester. British Medical Journal Vol. 316, pp 1712-1713, 6 June 1998

49. A Pastuszak, L Schuler ea, Use of Misoprostol during pregnancy and Mobius syndrome in infants. The New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 338, number 26 pp 1881-1885, June 25, 1998

50. L Schuler, A Pastuszak, M Teresa ea. Pregnancy Outcome after exposure to misoprostol in Brazil, a prospective controlled study. Reproductive Toxicology, Vol 13, No 2, pp 147-151, 1999

51. T da Silva Dal Pizzol, V Tierling, ea. Reproductive results associated with Misoprostol and other substances utilized for interruption of pregnancy. Eur.J Clin. Pharmacol (2005) 61: 71-72.

52. David S. Newberger, M.D. Down syndrome: Prenatal risk assessment and diagnosis. American Family Physician, Vol. 62/No. 4 (August 15, 2000)

53. Essential medicines, WHO Model list (revised March 2005), page 20. WHO

54. Hamoda, Ashok, Flett and Templeton. A randomized trial of mifepriston in combination with misoprostol administered sublingually or vaginally for medical abortion at 13-20 weeks of gestation. Human Reproduction. Advance Access, May 5, 2005, pp 1-7.

55. Hedley, Ellertson, Trussell ed, Accounting for time: Insights from a life-table analysis of the efficacy of medical abortion. American Journal of Obstetrics and Gyneacology (2004) 191, pp 1928-33

56. Timothy Craig, Cathy Mende. Common allergic and allergic-like reactions to medications. Postgraduate Medicine, vol105/ no 3/ March 1999

57. Prof P Potter, Allergy society of South Africa Retrieved August 12, 2005

58. G William Palmer, Stephen Dreskin, Anaphylaxis. E-Medicine, October 2004. pp 3. Retrieved August 12, 2005

59. Hamoda, Ashok, Flett, Templeton, A randomized controlled trial of Mifepristone in combination with misoprostol administered sublingually or vaginally for medical abortion up to 13 weeks of gestation. BJOG 2005 Aug; 112(8): 1102-8

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61. Middleton T, Schaff EA, Fielding SL, Scahill M, Shannon C, Westheimer E, Wilkinson T, Winikoff B. Randomized trial of mifepristone and buccal or vaginal misoprostol for abortion through 56 days of LMP. Contraception 2005; 72:328-332.

62. Hannafin B, Lovecchio F, Do Rh-negative women with first trimester spontaneous abortions need Rh immune globulin? Am J Emerg Med. 2006 Jul;24(4):487-9.

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67. Winer N, Resche-Rigon M, Morin C, Ville Y, Rozenberg P., Is induced abortion with misoprostol a risk factor for late abortion or preterm delivery in subsequent pregnancies?, Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 2009 May 6.

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69. Rachael L. McEwing, Nigel G. Anderson, Jeremy B. A. Meates, Richard B. Allen, Greg T. M. Phillipson, and J. Elisabeth Wells. Sonographic Appearances of the Endometrium After Termination of Pregnancy in Asymptomatic Versus Symptomatic Women JUM May 2009 28:579-586

70. Gynuity (2009) Providing medical abortion in low-resource settings: An Introductory Guidebook, Second Edition

71. Bar-Hava I, Aschkenazi S, Orvieto R, et al. Spectrum of normal intrauterine cavity sonographic findings after first trimester abortion. J Ultrasound Med 2001; 20:1277– 1281.

72. Sawyer E, Ofuasia E, Ofili-Yebovi D, Helmy S, Gonzalez J, Jurkovic D. The value of measuring endometrial thickness and volume on transvaginal ultrasound scan for the diagnosis of incomplete miscarriage. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2007; 29:205–209

73. Akin A., Blum J., Özalp S., Onderoglu L., Kirca U., Bilgili N, et al. (2004); Results and lessons learned from a small medical abortion clinical study in Turkey. Contraception; 70; 401 – 406

74. Bracken H. (2010); Home administration of misoprostol for early medical abortion in India. International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics; 108; 228 – 232

75. Chuni N., Chandrashekhar TS. (2009) Early pregnancy termination with a simplified mifepristone: Medical abortion outpatient regimen. Kathmandu University Medical Journal; 7 (3) Issue 27; 209 – 212

76. Creinin M.D., Pymar H.C., Schwartz J.L. (2001); Mifepristone 100 mg in abortion regimens. Obstetrics & Gynecology; 98 (3); 434 – 439

77. Creinin M.D., Schreiber C.A., Bednarek P., Lintu H., Wagner M.S., Meyn L.A. (2007) Mifepristone and Misoprostol Administered Simultaneously Versus 24 Hours Apart for Abortion: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Obstetrics & Gynecology; 109 (4); 885–94

78. Fjerstad M., Sivin I., Lichtenberg E.S., Trussell J., Cleland K., Cullins V. (2009) Effectiveness of medical abortion with mifepristone and buccal misoprostol through 59 gestational days. Contraception; 80; 282 – 286

79. Guest J., Chien P., Thomson M., Kosseim M. (2007) Randomised controlled trial comparing the efficacy of same-day administration of mifepristone and misoprostol for termination of pregnancy with the standard 36 to 48 hour protocol. BJOG; 114; 207 – 215

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